Gingivitis is a very common and mild form of gum (periodontal) disease that causes irritation, redness and swelling (inflammation) of your gums. Because gingivitis can be very mild, you may not be aware that you have the condition. But it’s important to take gingivitis seriously and treat it promptly as it can lead to much more serious gum disease (periodontitis) and eventual tooth loss.
The most common cause of gingivitis is poor oral hygiene. Good oral health habits, such as regular professional checkups and daily brushing and flossing, can help prevent gingivitis. Call us today at 614-775-0840 to schedule an appointment. #JeffAngartDDS
Healthy gums are firm and pale pink. If your gums are puffy, red and bleed easily, you may have gingivitis. Because gingivitis is seldom painful, you can have gingivitis without even knowing it. Signs and symptoms of gingivitis may include:
- Swollen gums
- Soft, puffy gums
- Receding gums
- Occasionally, tender gums
- Gums that bleed easily when you brush or floss, sometimes seen as redness or pinkness on your brush or floss
- A change in the color of your gums from a healthy pink to dusky red
- Bad breath
- When to see a dentist
- Most dentists recommend regular checkups to identify gingivitis, cavities (caries) and other dental conditions before they cause troubling symptoms and lead to more-serious problems. Also schedule an appointment with your dentist if you notice any signs and symptoms of gingivitis. The sooner you seek care, the better your chances of reversing damage from gingivitis and preventing its progression to more-serious conditions.
The most common cause of gingivitis is poor oral hygiene that encourages plaque to form. Plaque is an invisible, sticky film composed mainly of bacteria. Plaque forms on your teeth when starches and sugars in food interact with bacteria normally found in your mouth. Brushing and flossing your teeth each day removes plaque. Plaque requires daily removal because it re-forms quickly, usually within 24 hours.
Plaque that stays on your teeth longer than two or three days can harden under your gumline into tartar (calculus). Tartar makes plaque more difficult to remove and creates a protective shield for bacteria. You usually can’t get rid of tartar by brushing and flossing — you need a professional dental cleaning to remove it.
The longer that plaque and tartar remain on your teeth, the more they irritate the gingiva, the part of your gum around the base of your teeth. In time, your gums become swollen and bleed easily.
Gingivitis is very common, and anyone can develop it. Many people first experience gum problems during puberty and then in varying degrees throughout life.
Factors that can increase your risk of gingivitis include:
- Poor oral health habits
- Tobacco use
- Older age
- Decreased immunity as a result of leukemia, HIV/AIDS or other conditions
- Certain medications
- Certain viral and fungal infections
- Dry mouth
- Hormonal changes, such as those related to pregnancy, your menstrual cycle or use of oral contraceptives
- Poor nutrition
- Substance abuse
- Ill-fitting dental restorations
Untreated gingivitis can progress to gum disease that spreads to underlying tissue and bone (periodontitis), a much more serious condition that can lead to tooth loss. Periodontitis and poor oral health in general may also affect your overall health in ways that aren’t completely understood. Studies link periodontitis to an increased risk of heart attack, stroke or lung disease. And women with periodontitis may be more likely to give birth to premature babies or babies with low birth weight than are women with healthy gums. Although more research is needed, these studies highlight the importance of taking good care of your teeth and gums.
Gingivitis usually clears up after a thorough professional cleaning — as long as you continue to follow a program of good oral hygiene at home. Your dentist will help you plan an effective home follow-up program. He or she will review brushing and flossing techniques to make sure you’re getting maximum benefit from your home cleaning. Your dentist may also recommend using an antiseptic mouth rinse to help clear away bacteria.
If you’re consistent with your home hygiene, you should see the return of pink, healthy gum tissue within days or weeks. You’ll need to practice good oral hygiene for life, however, so your gum problems don’t return.
Lifestyle and home remedies
Care at home plays a key role in preventing and reversing gingivitis. Steps you can take at home include:
- Get regular professional dental cleanings, on a schedule recommended by your dentist.
- Use a soft toothbrush and replace it at least every three to four months.
- Consider using an electric toothbrush, which may be more effective at removing plaque and tartar.
- Brush your teeth twice a day, or better yet, after every meal or snack.
- Floss at least daily.
- Use an antiseptic mouthwash, if recommended by your dentist.
- Use an interdental cleaner, such as a dental pick or dental stick specially designed to clean between your teeth.
- Don’t rely on tartar-control toothpaste to do the job that brushing and flossing should do.
The best way to prevent gingivitis is a program of good dental hygiene, one that you begin early and practice consistently throughout life. That means brushing your teeth at least twice daily — in the morning and before going to bed — and flossing at least once a day. Better yet, brush after every meal or snack or as your dentist recommends. A complete cleaning with a toothbrush and floss should take three to five minutes. Flossing before you brush allows you to clean away the loosened food particles and bacteria.
Also, see your dentist or dental hygienist regularly for professional cleanings, usually every three to six months. If you have risk factors that increase your chance of developing gingivitis, you may need professional dental cleanings more often.